Mano Dura (Iron Fist) and the Ley Antimaras (Anti-Gang Law). Honduras. Social violence, (in)security, and security policies in Honduras and Central. America. Con la aprobación de la Ley Antimaras se sanciona con una pena de un fuerte lo que llevaba el Estado de Honduras, por lo que empezaron. cargo de las Fuerzas. Armadas. Reforma constitucional. Nueva Ley. Orgánica de la. Policía. Ley anti-maras. Reforma del. Código Penal. Crisis y reorganización.

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Hide Footnote During the El Salvador gang truce, some local businesses reached their own informal agreements with the maras.

Hide Footnote That same year, Guatemalan MS members kidnapped and decapitated four random victims and left their heads on the street one of them in front of the National Congress with the aim of coercing authorities to repeal measures against imprisoned gang members. Homicide levels started to escalate to pre-truce levels, reaching an unprecedented high in In El Salvador, critical elements of the peace agreement were only partially implemented. Hide Footnote Over 50 people detained in Guatemala City in were found to be living in insalubrious housing in poor neighbourhoods.

Institutional flaws in the security and justice systems are evident in all three countries. Hide Footnote Meanwhile, the justice and security minister, the security cabinet and the sub-cabinet for violence prevention seek to implement different parts of various public policies. How to Get U. Although Honduras did not suffer a civil war, urban poverty rates increased there by 18 per cent from toaccording to the World Bank.

Ad hoc negotiations and transactions with gangs responsible for extortion are not uncommon in the Northern Triangle, and have generated insights into how the maras may be edged toward formal economic activity. Hide Footnote This tendency was most marked in El Salvador, where the civil war of the s had familiarised the general public with sub-national areas run by the guerrilla.


However, these cases of accommodation with extortion rackets do not erase the extremes of violence in protection economies.

The mara gangs that emerged in the late s responded in distinct ways to the social, geographic and institutional conditions of each Northern Triangle country. This report is based on dozens of interviews with officials and experts in El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras, including with security agents, prosecutors, donors, academics, activists and community dwellers in marginal neighbourhoods of San Salvador, Guatemala City, Tegucigalpa and San Pedro Sula.

Tough tactics have not produced the expected effects on crime and violence in the NTCA. In The Construction of the Maras: In El Salvador, local transport businesses inducted the emerging neighbourhood gangs of the early s into extortion rackets, paying them to intimidate rival firms or carry out targeted killings. Data from the World Prison Brief, www. In the last five years, however, the menace of organized crime and drug trafficking has seemed to increasingly replace the security threat previously associated with youth gangs.

Hide Footnote The essential but menial tasks they carry out include conveying messages from jailed gang leaders and collecting extortion payments.

In Guatemala and Honduras, they also depend on extortion, but enjoy stronger relations with drug traffickers and other criminal groups. This question is even more pressing when political motivations behind certain portrayals blur the lines between politicization and securitization.

You can suggest to your library or institution to subscribe to the program OpenEdition Freemium for books. The armed conflicts and socio-economic debacle of the s hondurzs s forcibly displaced hundreds of thousands, most of them peasants or poor urban dwellers with limited schooling.

Review our privacy policy for more details. Charting this route, however, requires a sharp switch in current policies. Treasury designated the MS a significant transnational criminal organisation.

4. Case studies

A programa program for its part joins together members of lfy clicas in specific money-making crimes, while uonduras in charge of killings are known as sicarios hit-men or gatilleros trigger-pullers. Maras veered toward either extortion, as in Guatemala and El Salvador, or honduars drug trafficking, like the MS in Honduras, where it has reportedly been involved in money laundering via the purchase of small businesses.


Portilloas quoted in Arellano Hide Footnote A recent study found that threats and murders were the two main factors driving forced internal displacement in that country, with women making up the largest share of victims.

As both gang activity and membership soared at the end of the s, the President Carlos Flores opted for repressive methods to counter mara activity — though in a cautious manner due to human hondras concerns about the newly-passed penal code for youths. He also argues for dedicated anti-gang units of the police, and the use of states of emergency to place a curfew on minors and allow police to enter homes without a warrant.

The Construction of the Maras – 4. Case studies – Graduate Institute Publications

This is also a key aspect of the concept of securitization because theoretically any issue can be transformed into a security threat by simply framing it as such, no matter whether it is a menace in reality. Hide Footnote Some cliques in the west coastal areas of El Salvador are reportedly becoming engaged in the trafficking of drugs north, while Salvadoran gang members have been seen buying weapons from Guatemalan drug dealers.

Recognition of this crisis, as Honduras has done, and willingness to embrace international humanitarian support by collaborating with local organisations in offering temporary shelter and assistance to those displaced by violence, are imperatives for the region.

Between Politicization and Securitization. Overview of government discourse and policies towards gangs per president, Honduras As the most important crime and revenue-raising business of the marasextortion is fundamental to understanding their resilience as well as the fear they have spread in their host societies.