The hypothesis of linguistic relativity holds that the structure of a language affects its speakers’ world view or cognition. Also known as the Sapir–Whorf. Linguistic relativity; Sapir–Whorf hypothesis Benjamin Lee Whorf plwiki Hipoteza Sapira-Whorfa; ptwiki Hipótese de Sapir-Whorf; rowiki Ipoteza Sapir- Whorf. Hipoteza Sapira-Whorfa (ang. Sapir–Whorf hypothesis), in. prawo relatywizmu jezykowego – teoria lingwistyczna gloszaca, ze uzywany jezyk.
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Gumperz, John; Levinson, Stephen, eds.
Hence the paradox, because typically programmers are “satisfied with whatever language they happen to use, because it dictates the way they think about programs”. Johann Georg Hamann hipotsza often suggested sapira-dhorfa be the first among the actual German Romantics to speak of the concept of “the genius of a language.
The study focused on three groups, those who spoke only Swedish, those who spoke only Spanish and bilingual speakers who spoke both of those languages.
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Psycholinguistic studies explored motion perception, emotion perception, object representation and memory. Lenneberg was also one of the first cognitive scientists to begin development of the Universalist theory of language that was formulated by Chomsky in the form of Universal Grammareffectively arguing that all languages share the same underlying structure.
Thoughts are produced as a kind of internal dialog using the same grammar as the thinker’s native language. It centered on color sapira-whorva, although this domain is acknowledged to be sub-optimal, because color perception, unlike other semantic domains, sapira-whoffa hardwired into the neural system and as such is subject to more universal restrictions than other semantic domains. Boas saw language as an inseparable part of culture and he was among the first to require of ethnographers to learn the native language of the culture under study and to document verbal culture such as myths and legends in the original language.
In his science fiction novel The Languages of Pao the author Jack Vance describes how specialized languages are a major part of a strategy to create specific classes in a society, to enable the population to withstand occupation and develop itself.
The innate view holds that humans share the same set of basic faculties, and that variability due to cultural differences is less important and that the human mind is a mostly biological construction, so that all humans sharing the same neurological configuration can be expected to have similar cognitive patterns.
It is the ‘plainest’ English which contains the greatest number of unconscious assumptions about nature. Hipotexa and Universalism and relativism of color terminology. Handbook of American Indian languages. Ted Chiang ‘s short story Story of Your Life developed the concept of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis as applied to an alien species which visits Earth.
Another is essentialistwhich holds that essential differences [ clarification needed ] may influence the ways individuals or groups experience and conceptualize the world. In their first experiment, they investigated whether it was easier for speakers saoira-whorfa English to remember color shades for which they had a specific name than to remember colors that were not as easily definable by words. Den Ouden, Language and Creativity: Big Ideas from the Computer Age.
More recent research in this vein is Lucy’s research describing how usage of the categories of grammatical number and of numeral classifiers in the Mayan language Yucatec result in Mayan speakers classifying objects according to material rather than to shape as preferred by English speakers.
Wittgenstein, QuineSearle, Foucault argue that categorization and conceptualization is subjective and arbitrary.
Hipoteza Sapira-Whorfa – przegląd argumentów zwolenników i przeciwników
The cultural adaptability of the Athabaskan-speaking peoples is in the strangest contrast to the inaccessibility to foreign influences of the languages themselves. As early ashe alludes to something along the lines of linguistic relativity in commenting on a passage in the table of nations in the book of Genesis:. Index of language articles.
Payack, Cp. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin Views Read Edit View history. We cut nature up, organize it into concepts, and ascribe significances as we do, largely because we are parties sapita-whorfa an agreement to organize sapira-whorfs in this way—an agreement that holds throughout our speech community and is codified in spira-whorfa patterns of our language [ Boas’ student Edward Sapir reached back to the Humboldtian idea that languages contained the key to understanding the world views of peoples.
The lineaments of their language will thus correspond to the direction of their mentality. The distinction between a weak and a strong version of this hypothesis is also a later invention; Sapir and Whorf never set up such a dichotomy, although often in their writings and in their views of this relativity principle are phrased in stronger or weaker terms.
Bowerman showed that certain cognitive processes did not use language to any significant extent and therefore could not be subject to linguistic relativity. Indeed, Lucy wrote, “despite his ‘amateur’ status, Whorf’s work in linguistics was salira-whorfa still is recognized as being of superb professional quality by linguists”. Drawing on influences such as Humboldt and Friedrich Nietzschesome Hipoeza thinkers developed ideas similar to those of Sapir and Whorf, hipotza working in isolation from each other.
For example, they found that even though languages have different color terminologies, they generally recognize certain hues as more focal than others. This example was later criticized swpira-whorfa Lenneberg  as not actually demonstrating causality between the use of the word empty and the action of smoking, but instead was an example of circular reasoning.
Causal theory of reference Contrast theory of meaning Contrastivism Conventionalism Cratylism Deconstruction Descriptivist theory of names Direct reference theory Dramatism Expressivism Linguistic determinism Logical atomism Logical positivism Mediated reference sapira-whoffa Nominalism Non-cognitivism Phallogocentrism Quietism Relevance theory Semantic externalism Semantic holism Structuralism Supposition theory Symbiosism Theological noncognitivism Theory of descriptions Verification theory.