BULLOUGH’S ESSAY, “Psychical Distance as a. Factor in given some attention to psychical distance; N1nd Essays Edward Bullough (Stanford, California. , , et passim. 6 Edward Bullough, ‘Psychical Distance’ as a Factor in Art and an Aesthetic Principle,”. The British Journal of Psychology, V (June. The concept of “physical distance” developed by Edward Bullough in his well- known article1has come to be generally accepted as an aesthetic principle.
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In a similar manner temporal remoteness produces Distance, and objects removed from us in point of time are ipso facto distanced to an extent which was impossible for their contemporaries. The conception of ‘Distance’ suggests, in connexion with Art, certain trains of thought by no means devoid of interest or of speculative importance. One of the best known examples is to be found in our attitude towards the events and characters of the drama; they appeal to us like persons and incidents of normal experience, except that that side of their appeal, which would usually affect us in a directly personal manner, is held in abeyance.
Rouse Ball and J. It has been an old problem why the ‘arts of the eye and of the ear’ should have reached the practically exclusive predominance over arts of other senses.
The absence of such a concordance between the characters of a work and of the spectator is, of course, the most general explanation for differences of ‘tastes. In Defence of Psychical Distance. In this sense Witasek, oeprating with Meinong’s theory of Annahemhas described the emotions involved in witnessing a drama as Scheingefuhlea term which has so frequently been misunderstood in discussions of his theories.
The listless movements of the ship and her warning calls soon tell upon the nerves of the passengers; and that special, expectant, tacit anxiety and nervousness, always associated with this experience, make a fog the dreaded terror of the sea all the more terrifying because of its very silence and gentleness for the expert seafarer no less than the ignorant landsman. Sneh Pandit – – British Journal of Aesthetics 16 1: Longman – – Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 6 1: To do so usually results in paradoxes, which are nowhere more inevitable than in discussions upon Art.
It is, of course, to be granted that the actual and admitted unreality of the dramatic action reinforces the effect of Distance. Bullough imagines a jealous husband watching a performance of Othellowho “will probably do anything but appreciate the play”.
Sign in to use this feature. They appeal to everybody and therefore to none. The success and intensity of its appeal would seem, therefore, to stand in direct proportion to the completeness with which it corresponds with our intellectual and emotional peculiarities and the idiosyncracies of our experience. It is this interplay that makes it possible to take the concept of ‘Psychical Distance’ both as an act and as properties.
“Psychical Distance” (Edward Bullough)
Vision and Philosophy in Michael Oakeshott Exeter: The discussion questions, bibliographic references, and hyperlinks have psyychical added by Julie Van Camp. Nevertheless, a fog at sea can be a source of intense relish and enjoyment.
In theory, therefore, not only the usual subjects of Art, but even the most personal affections, whether ideas, percepts or emotions, can be sufficiently distanced to be aesthetically appreciable. The proof of the seeming paradox that it is Distance which primarily gives to dramatic action the appearance of unreliability and not vice versais the observation that the same filtration of our sentiments and the same seeming ‘unreality’ of actual men and things occur, when at times, by a sudden change of inward perspective, we are overcome by the feeling that “all the world’s a stage.
Many pictures, plays and poems had, as a matter of fact, rather an expository or illustrating significance – as for instance much ecclesiastical Art – or the force of a direct practical appeal – as the invectives of many satires or comedies – which seem to us nowadays irreconcilable with their aesthetic claims.
In the First World WarBullough was recruited as a civilian in the summer of to the Admiralty ‘s cryptoanalysis section, Room In their interplay they afford one of the most extensive explanations for varieties of aesthetic experience, since loss of distance, whether due to the one or the other, means loss of aesthetic appreciation.
I mean here what is often rather loosely termed ‘idealistic Art,’ that is, Art springing from abstract conceptions, expressing allegorical meanings, or illustrating general truths. This personal, but ‘distanced’ relation as I will venture to call this nameless character of our view directs attention to a strange fact which appears to be one of the fundamental paradoxes of Art: The jealous spectator of ‘Othello’ will indeed appreciate and enter into the play the more keenly, the greater the resemblance with his own experience – provided that he succeeds in keeping the Distance between the action of the play and his personal feelings: Using the term ‘Psychical Distance’, he showed that the states of aesthetic appreciation and artistic production stood outside the context of our personal needs and ends.
This page was psychicak edited on 27 Novemberat Herein especially lies the advantage of Distance compared with such terms as ‘objectivity’ and ‘detachment. On the contrary, it describes a personal relation, often highly emotionally coloured, but of a peculiar character. Suppose a man, who believes that he has cause to be jealous about his wife, witnesses a performance of ‘Othello. This difference, so well known as to be almost trivial, is generally explained bulough reference to the knowledge that the characters and situations are ‘unreal,’ imaginary.
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Wilkinson, introduction to Aestheticsby Edward Bullough London: Psychical Distance bulloough the Aesthetic Appreciation of Wilderness. Consequently, this distanced view of things is not, and cannot be, our normal outlook.
For certain forms of Art, such as lyrical poetry, are said to be ‘subjective’; Shelley, for example would usually be considered a ‘subjective’ writer.
It is not, however, in any of these meanings that ‘Distance’ is put forward here, though it will be clear in the course of this essay that the above mentioned kinds of distance are rather special forms of the conception of distance as advocated here, and derive whatever aesthetic qualities they may possess from distance in its general connotation.
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University’s proxy server Configure custom proxy use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy. But it does not mean that the relation between the self and the object is broken to the extent of becoming ‘impersonal. Note that Bullough’s texts and translations of other authors are collected after the chronological presentation.
Closely related, in fact a presupposition to the ‘antimony,’ is the variability of Distance.
Naoko Korita, Edward Bullough’s Concept of ‘Psychical Distance’ – PhilPapers
Again, it marks one of the most important steps in the process of artistic creation and serves as a distinguishing feature of what is common so loosely described as the ‘artistic temperament. After a short illness  resulting from an internal operation,  Bullough died in a nursing home in Bath on 17 September The same misconception has arisen over many ‘problem plays’ and ‘problem novels’ in which the public have persisted in seeing nothing but a supposed ‘problem’ of the moment, whereas the author may have been – and often has demonstrably been – able to distance the subject-matter sufficiently to rise above its practical problematic import and to regard it simply as a dramatically and humanly interesting situation.
He will prove artistically most effective in the formulation of an intensely personal experience, but he can formulate it artistically only on condition of a detachment from the experience qua personal.
Wilkinson, introduction to Aestheticsxii. It will be seen later that this is actually true, for it appears that over-distanced Art is specially designed for a class of appreciation which has difficulty to rise spontaneously to any degree of distance.
He did experimental work on the perception of coloursand in his theoretical work introduced the concept of psychical distance: Perhaps the most obvious suggestion is that of actual spatial distance, i.
This contrast, often emerging with startling suddenness, is like a momentary switching on of some new current, or the passing ray of a brighter light, illuminating the outlook upon perhaps the most ordinary and familiar objects – an impression which we experience sometimes in instants of direct extremity, when our practical interest snaps like a wire from sheer over-tension, and we watch the consummation of some impending catastrophe with the marvelling unconcern of a mere spectator.
Monthly downloads Sorry, there are not enough data points to plot this chart. Crossley – – Idealistic Studies 3 1: Eric vd Luft – – Evental Aesthetics 2 2: