J. C. CATFORD. LANGUAGE. LANGUAGE. LEARNING. A Linguistic. Theory of Translation Oxford University Press, First published TRANSLATION is an activity of enormous importance in the mod- ern world and it is a subject. A linguistic theory of translation: an essay in applied linguistics. Front Cover. John Cunnison Catford. Oxford University Press, – Language Arts & Disciplines – pages. A Linguistic Theory of Translation: An Essay in Applied Linguistics. Front Cover. John Cunnison Catford. Oxford University Press, – Linguistic research.
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The contextual meanings of the two Navaho terms given here are also different from anything in English: The interpreter translates this my brother. Free Once again, only 3, the free translation, is interchangeable with the SL text in a situation where the addressee is being advised to dismiss or disregard a triviality. The basis for equivalence here, as in total translation, is relationship to the same situation- substance.
But the text which is for the linguist the central item in the speech-act is, or may be, relatable not only to features of this immediate situation, but also to features at greater and greater distances so to speak reaching out, ultimately, into the total cultural background of the situation.
A Linguistic Theory Of Translation Oxford Univ. Press ( 1965)
theorj Among utterances recorded by Landar et al. Thus, in relation to the dialects of Britain, Cockney is a south-eastern dialect. Translation became, as never before, a part of the English writer’s career, and sometimes a whole career in itself. It is only rarely lihguistic the functionally relevant situational features related to home include that nebulous sentimentality which is supposed not to be related to lexical items in other languages — e.
Performer and addressee are socio-linguistic roles — whether or not both roles are played by different individuals is quite irrelevant.
In other words we may systematically intro- duce changes into the SL text and observe what changes if any occur in tjeory TL text as a consequence. Equivalence, in this example, can be established only at translahion higher rank, namely the group. In this case, translation is virtually impossible — an example is given in The syllable is the unit of syllabicity.
It is tempting, linguistc, to set up a formal correspondence between the terms of the systems as in this table: Numerosity is a contextually irrelevant feature of situations for the N. We can tabulate the difference thus: V, vowels — operating as exponent of N in syllable structure: These three terms refer to three scales which are part of the general theory of language, and of language-description.
The contrasts are of two kinds i contrasts of tone, i.
My library Help Advanced Book Search. The foot is the carrier of contrastive differences in stress-distribution.
Translation is shown to be a much more complex matter than is commonly realized, while at the same time the author indicates important new ways of approaching it. Another — negative — illustration of this is provided by an Anglo-Yiddish joke, from which this is a relevant extract.
There are certainly overlaps in collocational range— thus we may have a whole roast sheep and we might have fat sheep as well as mutton fat, but on the whole they have different collocational ranges, and this establishes the fact that they belong to different lexical sets and are different lexical items. The normal exponents of elements of group structure arc words. For any particular language, of course, there is an arbitrary relationship between graphological and phonological 3 units. But A is almost untranslatable.
Firth Japanese Kabardian lation equivalent levels lexical items lexical set linguistic untranslatability linguistically relevant Machine Translation markers medium morphemes Navaho Nominal Group occur operate as exponents phoneme phonic substance phono phonological exponent phonological translation equivalent polysemy prisla pronouns rank scale rank-bound rank-shifted replaced by equivalent replacement of SL restricted translation Russian selection sentence shift Sindhi situation substance situation-substance situational features SL and TL SL item sputnik structure structure-shift style syllable textual equivalence theory of translation TL equivalent TL grammar TL text tone-group tonic total translation trans translation equivalent transliteration variety related vocoid voiceless words yukata.
The Chinese graphological unit — the character — is directly convertible to a lexical or grammatical unit of the language. Such sub-sets might be made up more or less at random — for example a sub-set of English items like the following: Those repre- sented by A B C D.
J d a linguistic theory of translation PDF | Damian Grzech –
If an SL item has a particularly restricted range of meaning it may not be possible to match this restriction in the TL.
Thus, in both Cyrillic and Roman we have, for instance: But, in true transliteration: In English, however, this item was introduced, and has re- mained, within only the last lexical set, and with the appropriate yheory meaning. In this case only one of these must be chosen as basis for transliteration: The exponent of Q is a rank-shifted clause of structure SP.
The same is true of contextual meanings. These are used only when explicit reference is being made to the description of English Phonology given in 1. For the present study, however, we confine ourselves to the varieties listed here. In the present example, then, we could say that the translation equivalent of the English indefinite article, a, is the French article zero.